Sundberg, M. L. &. Michael, J. (2001). The benefits of Skinner’s analysis of verbal behaviour for children with autism. Behaviour Modification, 25 (5), 698-724.
The EO as an independent variable:
Manding is controlled by EOs which is why knowing how to control and contrive EOs is important in early language training.
However the EO can be inconspicuous at times and may share control with discriminative stimuli. For example, the production of a mand for a ball may be contingent on the trainer holding the ball in front of the child and asking “what do you want?” The response “ball” would be correct as a tact and a mand at that point.
- Therefore in future requesting “ball” may not be produced independently unless the object is present and the verbal stimuli is presented.
It has been found that the use of EOs as in independent variable in mand training can help the later development of other verbal operants such as tacting, echoics, and intraverbal training. This is because it creates a willing learner who is successful, and trainers are paired with reinforcement.
The intraverbal repertoire:
Intraverbal skills involve talking about objects, ideas, activities, past events, future events, and anything that is not present in your immediate environment. It is an advanced skill to have, but it is essential for good conversation skills.
Typical children get much of their intraverbal repertoire from their verbal environments. However with an early learner who is not highly reinforced by stimuli in the social world, it may be necessary to teach the intraverbal skills they need to fully interact socially.